When a software program is modularized, its tasks are divided into several modules based on some characteristics. As we know, modules are set of instructions put together in order to achieve some tasks. They are though, considered as single entity but may refer to each other to work together. There are measures by which the quality of a design of modules and their interaction among them can be measured. These measures are called coupling and cohesion.
Cohesion is a measure that defines the degree of intra-dependability within elements of a module. The greater the cohesion, the better is the program design.
There are seven types of cohesion, namely
- Co-incidental cohesion - It is unplanned and random cohesion, which might be the result of breaking the program into smaller modules for the sake of modularization. Because it is unplanned, it may serve confusion to the programmers and is generally not accepted.
- Logical cohesion - When logically categorized elements are put together into a module it is called logical cohesion.
- Temporal Cohesion - When elements of module are organized such that they are processed at a similar point in time, it is called temporal cohesion.
- Procedural cohesion - When elements of module are grouped together, which are executed sequentially in order to perform a task, it is called procedural cohesion.
- Communicational cohesion - When elements of module are grouped together, which are executed sequentially and work on same data (information), it is called communicational cohesion.
- Sequential cohesion - When elements of module are grouped because the output of one element serves as input to another and so on, it is called sequential cohesion.
- Functional cohesion - It is considered to be the highest degree of cohesion, and it is highly expected. Elements of module in functional cohesion are grouped because they all contribute to a single well-defined function. It can also be reused.
Coupling is a measure that defines the level of inter-dependability among modules of a
program. It tells at what level the modules interfere and interact with each other. The lower the coupling, the better the program.
There are five levels of coupling, namely:
- Content coupling - When a module can directly access or modify or refer to the content of another module, it is called content level coupling.
- Common coupling- When multiple modules have read and write access to some global data, it is called common or global coupling.
- Control coupling- Two modules are called control-coupled if one of them decides the function of the other module or changes its flow of execution.
- Stamp coupling- When multiple modules share common data structure and work on different part of it, it is called stamp coupling.
- Data coupling- Data coupling is when two modules interact with each other by means of passing data (as parameter). If a module passes data structure as parameter, then the receiving module should use all its components.
Ideally, no coupling is considered to be the best.
A software life cycle model (also called process model) is a descriptive and diagrammatic
representation of the software life cycle. A life cycle model represents all the activities required to make a software product transit through its life cycle phases. It also captures the order in which these activities are to be undertaken. In other words, a life cycle model maps the different activities performed on a software product from its inception to retirement. Different life cycle models may map the basic development activities to phases in different ways. Thus, no matter which life cycle model is followed, the basic activities are included in all life cycle models though the activities may be carried out.in different orders in different life cycle models.During any life cycle phase, more than one activity may also be carried out .
Need for Software life cycle model
The development team must identify a suitable life cycle model for the particular project and then adhere to it. Without using of a particular life cycle model the development of a software product would not be in a systematic and disciplined manner. When a software product is being developed by a team there must be a clear understanding among team members about when and what to do. Otherwise it would lead to chaos and project failure. This problem can be illustrated by using an example. Suppose a software development problem is divided into several parts and the parts are assigned to the team members. From then on, suppose the team members are allowed the freedom to develop the parts assigned to them in whatever way they like. It is possible that one member might start writing the code for his part, another might decide to
prepare the test documents first, and some other engineer might begin with the design phase of the parts assigned to him. This would be one of the perfect recipes for project failure. A software life cycle model defines entry and exit criteria for every phase. A phase can start only if its phase-entry criteria have been satisfied. So without software life cycle model the entry and exit criteria for a phase cannot be recognized. Without software life cycle models it becomes difficult for software project managers to monitor the progress of the project.
Different software life cycle models
Many life cycle models have been proposed so far. Each of them has some advantages as well as some disadvantages. A few important and commonly used life cycle models are as follows:
- Classical Waterfall Model
- Iterative Waterfall Model
- Prototyping Model
- Evolutionary Model
- Spiral Model
Someone must resolve conflicting requirements from different user classes, reconcile inconsistencies, and arbitrate questions of scope that arise. The product champions or product owner can handle this in many, but likely not all, cases. Early in the project, determine who the decision makers will be for requirements issues. If it’s not clear who is responsible for making these decisions or if the authorized individuals abdicate their responsibilities, the decisions will fall to the developers or analysts by default. Most of them don’t have the necessary knowledge and perspective to make the best business decisions, though. Analysts sometimes defer to the loudest voice they hear or to the person highest on the food chain. Though understandable, this is not the best strategy. Decisions should be made as low in the organization’s hierarchy as possible by well-informed people who are close to the issues.
- Large software - It is easier to build a wall than to a house or building, likewise, as thesize of software become large engineering has to step to give it a scientific process. Scalability- If the software process were not based on scientific and engineering concepts, it would be easier to re-create new software than to scale an existing one.
- Cost- As hardware industry has shown its skills and huge manufacturing has lower down the price of computer and electronic hardware. But the cost of software remains high if proper process is not adapted.
- Dynamic Nature- The always growing and adapting nature of software hugely depends upon the environment in which the user works. If the nature of software is always changing, new enhancements need to be done in the existing one. This is where software engineering plays a good role.
- Quality Management- Better process of software development provides better andquality software product.
In enhancement and replacement projects, even if you don’t have existing documentation, you do have a system to work from to discover the relevant requirements. During enhancement projects, consider drawing a dialog map for the new screens you have to add, showing the navigation connections to and from existing display elements. You might write use cases or user stories that span the new and existing functionality.
In replacement system projects, you need to understand all of the desired functionality, just as you do on any new development project. Study the user interface of the existing system to identify candidate functionality for the new system. Examine existing system interfaces to determine what data is exchanged between systems today. Understand how users use the current system. If no one understands the functionality and business rules behind the user interface, someone will need to look at the code or database to understand what’s going on. Analyze any documentation that does exist—design documents, help screens, user manuals, training materials—to identify requirements.
You might not need to specify functional requirements for the existing system at all, instead
creating models to fill the information void. Swimlane diagrams can describe how users do their jobs with the system today. Context diagrams, data flow diagrams, and entity-relationship diagrams are also useful. You might create user requirements, specifying them only at a high level without filling in all of the details. Another way to begin closing the information gap is to create data dictionary entries when you add new data elements to the system and modify existing definitions. The test suite might be useful as an initial source of information to recover the software requirements, because tests represent an alternative view of requirements.
SRS is a document created by system analyst after the requirements are collected from various stakeholders. SRS defines how the intended software will interact with hardware, external interfaces, speed of operation, response time of system, portability of software across various platforms, maintainability, speed of recovery after crashing, Security, Quality, Limitations etc. The requirements received from client are written in natural language. It is the responsibility of the system analyst to document the requirements in technical language so that they can be comprehended and used by the software development team. SRS should come up with the following features:
User Requirements are expressed in natural language.
Technical requirements are expressed in structured language, which is used inside the organization.
Design description should be written in Pseudo code.
Format of Forms and GUI screen prints.
Conditional and mathematical notations for DFDs etc.
A software product can be judged by what it offers and how well it can be used. This software must satisfy on the following grounds:
Well-engineered and crafted software is expected to have the following characteristics:
This tells us how well the software works in operations. It can be measured on:
This aspect is important when the software is moved from one platform to another:
This aspect briefs about how well the software has the capabilities to maintain itself in the ever-changing environment:
A Software Project is the complete procedure of software development from requirement gathering to testing and maintenance, carried out according to the execution methodologies, in a specified period of time to achieve intended software product.
Need of software project management Software is said to be an intangible product. Software development is a kind of all new stream in world business and there is very little experience in building software products. Most software products are tailor made to fit client’s requirements. The most important is that the underlying technology changes and advances so frequently and rapidly that the experience of one product may not be applied to the other one. All such business and environmental constraints bring risk in software development hence it is essential to manage software projects efficiently.