A software project manager is a person who undertakes the responsibility of executing the software project. Software project manager is thoroughly aware of all the phases of SDLC that the software would go through. The project manager may never directly involve in producing the end product but he controls and manages the activities involved in production. A project manager closely monitors the development process, prepares and executes various plans, arranges necessary and adequate resources, maintains communication among all team members in order to address issues of cost, budget, resources, time, quality and customer satisfaction.
The most serious outcome of a poor requirements elicitation process is that : The developers are solving the wrong problem. This guarantees the failure of the whole project. Even if the developers are solving essentially the right problem, a poor elicitation process can have other negative outcomes. The customers can be dissatisfied; this often happens if the developers did not really listen to them, or if the developers dominated the process and tended to force their own views and interpretations on the customers. Dissatisfaction may result in less effective participation by the stakeholders or customers, resulting in less complete answers to the developer’s questions. The dissatisfaction can continue to affect the project through development and delivery of the software. A poor elicitation process often leads to a chaotic development process. The developers may discover that they are missing important information, resulting in additional meetings with the customers. The developers may make the wrong decisions or tradeoffs because of a lack of understanding of the users’ needs. Requirements may change more often, resulting in greater need for configuration management, or in delays or wasted effort in design and implementation. The result is cost and schedule overruns, and sometimes failed or canceled projects. All of these effects can result in a loss of money for the company developing or buying the software, loss of reputation or credibility for the developers, and a decline in the developers’ morale. s or, in extreme cases, actively sabotage the development effort.
Validation is process of examining whether or not the software satisfies the user requirements. It is carried out at the end of the SDLC. If the software matches requirements for which it was made, it is validated.
- Validation ensures the product under development is as per the user requirements.
- Validation answers the question – "Are we developing the product which attempts all that user needs from this software ?".
- Validation emphasizes on user requirements.
Verification is the process of confirming if the software is meeting the business requirements, and is developed adhering to the proper specifications and methodologies.
- Verification ensures the product being developed is according to design specifications.
- Verification answers the question– "Are we developing this product by firmly following all design specifications ?"
- Verifications concentrates on the design and system specifications.
Targets of the test are :
Errors - These are actual coding mistakes made by developers. In addition, there is a difference in output of software and desired output, is considered as an error.
Fault - When error exists fault occurs. A fault, also known as a bug, is a result of an error which can cause system to fail.
Failure - failure is said to be the inability of the system to perform the desired task. Failure occurs when fault exists in the system
Testing can either be done manually or using an automated testing tool:
Manual - This testing is performed without taking help of automated testing tools. The software tester prepares test cases for different sections and levels of the code, executes the tests and reports the result to the manager.
Manual testing is time and resource consuming. The tester needs to confirm whether or not right test cases are used. Major portion of testing involves manual testing.
Automated This testing is a testing procedure done with aid of automated testing tools. The limitations with manual testing can be overcome using automated test tools.
A test needs to check if a webpage can be opened in Internet Explorer. This can be easily done with manual testing. But to check if the web-server can take the load of 1 million users, it is quite impossible to test manually.There are software and hardware tools which helps tester in conducting load testing, stress testing, regression testing
In the process of coding, the lines of code keep multiplying, thus, size of the software increases. Gradually, it becomes next to impossible to remember the flow of program. If one forgets how software and its underlying programs, files, procedures are constructed it then becomes very difficult to share, debug and modify the program. The solution to this is structured programming. It encourages the developer to use subroutines and loops instead of using simple jumps in the code, thereby bringing clarity in the code and improving its efficiency Structured programming also helps programmer to reduce coding time and organize code properly.
In procedural programming, it is possible for a procedure to produce different results when it is called with the same argument, as the program itself can be in different state while calling it. This is a property as well as a drawback of procedural programming, in which the sequence or timing of the procedure execution becomes important.
Functional programming provides means of computation as mathematical functions, which produces results irrespective of program state. This makes it possible to predict the behavior of the program.
Programming style is set of coding rules followed by all the programmers to write the code. When multiple programmers work on the same software project, they frequently need to work with the program code written by some other developer. This becomes tedious or at times impossible, if all developers do not follow some standard programming style to code the program.
An appropriate programming style includes using function and variable names relevant to the intended task, using well-placed indentation, commenting code for the convenience of reader and overall presentation of code. This makes the program code readable and understandable by all, which in turn makes debugging and error solving easier. Also, proper coding style helps ease the documentation and updation.
Outcomes of Requirements Elicitation The tangible result of requirements elicitation is a set of requirements that can be used by the software development team. However, there are many other intangible outcomes of the process that can affect the overall success of the project. Those outcomes differ, depending on whether the elicitation process was conducted well or poorly. Outcomes of a Good Process Users of a software system often come to the requirements elicitation process with only a vague idea of what they really need and with little idea of what software technology might offer. A good elicitation process helps them explore and fully understand their requirements, especially in the separation of what they want and what they need. Their interactions with the software engineer help them understand the constraints that might be imposed on the system by: Technology Organizational practices, Government regulations. They understand alternatives, both technological and procedural, that might be considered in the proposed system. They come to understand the tradeoffs that might need to be made when two requirements cannot both be satisfied fully. Overall, the users have a good understanding of the implications of the decisions they have made in developing the requirements. This results in fewer surprises when the system is built and delivered. The customer and users share with the software engineer a vision of the problems they are trying to solve and the kinds of solutions that are feasible. They feel a sense of ownership of the products of the elicitation process. They are satisfied with the process, feel informed and educated, believe their risk is minimized, and are committed to the success of the project. Similarly, the software engineers and developers who have participated in the requirements technology, organizational practices, or government regulations. They understand alternatives, both technological and procedural, that might be considered in the proposed system. They come to understand the tradeoffs that might need to be made when two requirements cannot both be satisfied fully. Overall, the users have a good understanding of the implications of the decisions they have made in developing the requirements. This results in fewer surprises when the system is built and delivered. The customer and users share with the software engineer a vision of the problems they are trying to solve and the kinds of solutions that are feasible. They feel a sense of ownership of the products of the elicitation process. They are satisfied with the process, feel informed and educated, believe their risk is minimized, and are committed to the success of the project. Similarly, the software engineers and developers who have participated in the requirements elicitation process is solving the right problem for the users.