Blog entry by AMELIA SAHIRA RAHMA 5116201024

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Systems Engineering

Systems engineering encompasses all of the activities involved in procuring, specifying, designing, implementing, validating, deploying, operating, and maintaining sociotechnical systems. Systems engineers are not just concerned with software but also with hardware and the system’s interactions with users and its environment. They must think about the services that the system provides, the constraints under which the system must be built and operated, and the ways in which the system is used to fulfill its purpose or purposes.

There are three overlapping stages (Figure 1) in the lifetime of large and complex sociotechnical systems :

  1. Procurement or acquisition During this stage, the purpose of a system is decided; high-level system requirements are established; decisions are made on how functionality will be distributed across hardware, software, and people, and the components that will make up the system are purchased.
  2. Development During this stage, the system is developed. Development processes include all of the activities involved in system development such as requirements definition, system design, hardware and software engineering, system integration, and testing. Operational processes are defined and the training courses for system users are designed.
  3. Operation At this stage, the system is deployed, users are trained, and the system is brought into use. The planned operational processes usually then have to change to reflect the real working environment where the system is used. Over time, the system evolves as new requirements are identified. Eventually, the system declines in value and it is decommissioned and replaced.

 

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Figure 1

 

These stages are not independent. Once the system is operational, new equipment and software may have to be procured to replace obsolete system components, to provide new functionality, or to cope with increased demand. Similarly, requests for changes during operation require further system development.

The overall security and dependability of a system is influenced by activities at all of these stages. Design options may be restricted by procurement decisions on the scope of the system and on its hardware and software. It may be impossible to implement some kinds of system safeguards. They may introduce vulnerabilities that could lead to future system failures.

Human errors made during the specification, design, and development stages may mean that faults are introduced into the system. Inadequate testing may mean that faults are not discovered before a system is deployed. During operation, errors in configuring the system for deployment may lead to further vulnerabilities. System operators may make mistakes in using the system. Assumptions made during the original procurement may be forgotten when system changes are made and, again, vulnerabilities can be introduced into the system.

An important difference between systems and software engineering is the involvement of a range of professional disciplines throughout the lifetime of the system. For example, the technical disciplines that may be involved in the procurement and development of a new system for air traffic management are shown in Figure 2. Architects and civil engineers are involved because new air traffic management systems usually have to be installed in a new building. Electrical and mechanical engineers are involved to specify and maintain the power and air conditioning. Electronic engineers are concerned with computers, radars, and other equipment. Ergonomists design the controller workstations and software engineers and user interface designers are responsible for the software in the system.

 

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Figure 2

 

The involvement of a range of professional disciplines is essential because there are so many different aspects of complex sociotechnical systems. However, differences between disciplines can introduce vulnerabilities into systems and so compromise the security and dependability of the system being developed :

  1. Different disciplines use the same words to mean different things. Misunderstandings are common in discussions between engineers from different backgrounds. If these are not discovered and resolved during system development, they can lead to errors in delivered systems. For example, an electronic engineer who may know a little bit about C# programming may not understand that a method in Java is comparable to a function in C.
  2. Each discipline makes assumptions about what can or can’t be done by other disciplines. These are often based on an inadequate understanding of what is actually possible. For example, a user interface designer may propose a graphical UI for an embedded system that requires a great deal of processing and so overloads the processor in the system.
  3. Disciplines try to protect their professional boundaries and may argue for certain design decisions because these decisions will call for their professional expertise. Therefore, a software engineer may argue for a software-based door locking system in a building, although a mechanical, key-based system may be more reliable.

 

System Procurement

The initial phase of systems engineering is system procurement (sometimes called system acquisition). At this stage, decisions are made on the scope of a system that is to be purchased, system budgets and timescales, and the high-level system requirements. Using this information, further decisions are then made on whether to procure a system, the type of system required, and the supplier or suppliers of the system. The drivers for these decisions are :

  1. The state of other organizational systems If the organization has a mixture of systems that cannot easily communicate or that are expensive to maintain, then procuring a replacement system may lead to significant business benefits.
  2. The need to comply with external regulations Increasingly, businesses are regulated and have to demonstrate compliance with externally defined regulations (e.g., Sarbanes-Oxley accounting regulations in the United States). This may require the replacement of noncompliant systems or the provision of new systems specifically to monitor compliance.
  3. External competition If a business needs to compete more effectively or maintain a competitive position, investment in new systems that improve the efficiency of business processes may be advisable. For military systems, the need to improve capability in the face of new threats is an important reason for procuring new systems.
  4. Business reorganization Businesses and other organizations frequently restructure with the intention of improving efficiency and/or customer service. Reorganizations lead to changes in business processes that require new systems support.
  5. Available budget The budget available is an obvious factor in determining the scope of new systems that can be procured.

 

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Figure 3

 

In addition, new government systems are often procured to reflect political changes and political policies. For example, politicians may decide to buy new surveillance systems, which they claim will counter terrorism. Buying such systems shows voters that they are taking action. However, such systems are often procured without a cost-benefit analysis, where the benefits that result from different spending options are compared.

Large, complex systems usually consist of a mixture of off-the-shelf and specially built components. One reason why more and more software is included in systems is that it allows more use of existing hardware components, with the software acting as ‘glue’ to make these hardware components work together effectively. The need to develop this ‘glueware’ is one reason why the savings from using off-the-shelf components are sometimes not as great as anticipated.

Figure 3 shows a simplified model of the procurement process for both COTS system components and system components that have to be specially designed and developed. Important points about the process shown in this diagram are :

  1. Off-the-shelf components do not usually match requirements exactly, unless the requirements have been written with these components in mind. Therefore, choosing a system means that you have to find the closest match between the system requirements and the facilities offered by off-the-shelf systems. You may then have to modify the requirements. This can have knock-on effects on other subsystems.
  2. When a system is to be built specially, the specification of requirements is part of the contract for the system being acquired. It is therefore a legal as well as a technical document.
  3. After a contractor has been selected, to build a system, there is a contract negotiation period where you may have to negotiate further changes to the requirements and discuss issues such as the cost of changes to the system. Similarly, once a COTS system has been selected, you may negotiate with the supplier on costs, licence conditions, possible changes to the system, etc.

The software and hardware in sociotechnical systems are usually developed by a different organization (the supplier) from the organization that is procuring the overall sociotechnical system. The reason for this is that the customer’s business is rarely software development so its employees do not have the skills needed to develop the systems themselves. In fact, very few companies have the capabilities to design, manufacture, and test all the components of a large, complex sociotechnical system.

 

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Figure 4

 

Consequently, the system supplier, who is usually called the principal contractor, often contracts out the development of different subsystems to a number of subcontractors. For large systems, such as air traffic control systems, a group of suppliers may form a consortium to bid for the contract. The consortium should include all of the capabilities required for this type of system. This includes computer hardware suppliers, software developers, peripheral suppliers, and suppliers of specialist equipment such as radar systems.

The procurer deals with the contractor rather than the subcontractors so that there is a single procurer/supplier interface. The subcontractors design and build parts of the system to a specification that is produced by the principal contractor. Once completed, the principal contractor integrates these different components and delivers them to the customer. Depending on the contract, the procurer may allow the principal contractor a free choice of subcontractors or may require the principal contractor to choose subcontractors from an approved list.

Decisions and choices made during system procurement have a profound effect on the security and dependability of a system. For example, if a decision is made to procure an off-the-shelf system, then the organization has to accept that they have very limited influence over the security and dependability requirements of this system. These largely depend on decisions made by system vendors. In addition, off-theshelf systems may have known security weaknesses or require complex configuration. Configuration errors, where entry points to the system are not properly secured, are a major source of security problems.

On the other hand, a decision to procure a custom system means that significant effort must be devoted to understanding and defining security and dependability requirements. If a company has limited experience in this area, this is quite a difficult thing to do. If the required level of dependability as well as acceptable system performance is to be achieved, then the development time may have to be extended and the budget increased.

Associated Kursus: KI142303BKI142303B
[ Mengubah: Saturday, 7 January 2017, 10:23 ]